Hasegawa R, St John MK, Cano M, Issenburg P, Klein DA, Walker BA, Jones JW, Schnell RC, Merrick BA, Davies MH, McMillan DA, Cohen SM. 1984. Bladder freeze ulceration and sodium saccharin feeding in the rat, examination for urinary nitrosamines, mutagens, and bacteria, and effects on hepatic microsomal enzymes. Food Chem Toxicol 22:935–942.
We previously demonstrated that long-term feeding of sodium saccharin, a non-mutagen, induced bladder carcinomas when administered to F344 male rats with regenerative hyperplasia of the urothelium induced by the freeze-ulceration technique, even without prior chemical initiation (Cohen et al. Cancer Res. 1982, 42, 65). In the present study, we examined the urine of rats subjected to freeze ulceration of the bladder and then fed sodium saccharin at 5% in the diet to evaluate the possibility of a mutagen being generated as a result of ulceration and/or saccharin feeding. Urine was collected into a syringe by aspiration from the urinary bladder after ligating the urethra for 2 hr at intervals from day 0 to day 14 after ulceration. After ulceration and/or sodium saccharin feeding, the urine showed no bacterial contamination, no mutagenic activity in the standard Ames assay, no production of nitrosamines, and no nitrosating environment. In addition, no significant changes in activities of liver microsomal enzymes (i.e. cytochrome P-450, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, aniline hydroxylase, or ethylmorphine N-demethylase) were observed in rats fed sodium saccharin for 1, 5 or 14 days. Thus, freeze ulceration, and the consequent regenerative hyperplasia of the epithelium, compared with sodium saccharin feeding do not involve the administration of an exogenous mutagenic substance or the generation of a detectable mutagen in the urine.