Publications : 2014

Bhat VS, Durham JL, English JC. 2014. Derivation of an oral reference dose (RfD) for the plasticizer, di-(2-propylheptyl)phthalate (Palatinol® 10-P). Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 70:65-74.


Di-(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP) is a high molecular weight polyvinyl chloride plasticizer. Since increasing production volume and broad utility may result in human exposure, an oral reference dose (RfD) was derived from laboratory animal data due to the lack of human data. In addition to liver and kidney, target organs were the thyroid, pituitary and adrenal glands in rats, recognizing that reproductive performance was not altered in two successive generations of DPHP-exposed rats. DPHP caused a reduction in pup and maternal body weights but not developmental or testicular effects typical of “phthalate syndrome.” DPHP was not genotoxic. Due to the lack of carcinogenicity data, there is inadequate information to assess carcinogenic potential. The RfD of 0.1 mg/kg-day was derived from the human equivalent BMDL10 of 10 mg/kg-day for thyroid hypertrophy/hyperplasia in male F1 adults from the two-generation study. While in utero exposure did not alter sensitivity to thyroid lesions compared to subchronic exposures beginning at six weeks of age, F1 adult males were the longest-term exposed population. The total uncertainty factor of 100x was comprised of intraspecies (10x), study duration (3x), and database (3x) factors but not an interspecies factor since rodents are more sensitive than humans to thyroid gland effects.