Publications : 2013

Yoon M, Clewell HJ, and Andersen ME. 2013. Deriving an explicit hepatic clearance equation accounting for plasma protein binding and hepatocellular uptake. Toxicol in Vitro 27(1):11–15.


High throughput in vitro biochemical and cell-based assays have the promise to provide more mechanism-based assessments of the adverse effects of large numbers of chemicals. One of the most challenging hurdles for interpreting in vitro toxicity findings is the need for reverse dosimetry tools that estimate the exposures that will give concentrations in vivo similar to the active concentrations in vitro. Recent experience using IVIVE approaches to estimate in vivo pharmacokinetics (Wetmore et al., 2012) identified the need to develop a hepatic clearance equation that explicitly accounted for a broader set of protein binding and membrane transport processes and did not depend on a well-mixed description of the liver compartment. Here we derive an explicit steady-state hepatic clearance equation that includes these factors. In addition to the derivation, we provide simple computer code to calculate steady-state extraction for any combination of blood flow, membrane transport processes and plasma protein–chemical binding rates. This expanded equation provides a tool to estimate hepatic clearance for a more diverse array of compounds.