Yoon M, Taylor MD, Clewell HJ, Andersen ME. 2015. Modeling manganese kinetics for human health risk assessment. In: Issues in Toxicology, Vol 2015-January, Issue 22, Royal Society of Chemistry, pp 322–354.
Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, present in significant concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS) and all other tissues. 1–4 Mn is required for normal immune function, regulation of blood sugar and cellular energy, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, skeletal cartilage development , reproduction, and brain functions. It participates in metabolic pathways and a co-factor metal for Mn superoxide dismutase and glutamine synthetase. 5,6 The body’s requirements for Mn are met through food and drinking water, with adult human consumption ranging from 1 to 10 mg Mn per day, of which about 1–5% is absorbed in the gut. 2,5,7 Homeostatic mechanisms controlling uptake, storage, and elimination of dietary Mn maintain tissue Mn concentrations at a relatively constant level despite widely varying dietary levels of Mn.