Georgiou G, Poetschke HL, Stathopoulos C, Francisco JA. 1993. Practical applications of engineering Gram-negative bacterial cell surfaces. Trends Biotechnol 11:6–10.
The recent development of systems for the expression of heterologous proteins on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria has stimulated considerable interest in practical applications. Areas in which surface expression is particularly important include the development of live bacterial vaccines, the display and selection of peptide and antibody libraries, the production of whole cell adsorbents, and the preparation of microbial biocatalysts.