Clewell HJ, Yoon M. 2014. In vitro–in vivo extrapolation. In: Wexler P (Ed), Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 3rd Edition, Vol 2. Elsevier Inc., Academic Press, pp. 1096–1100.
With the remarkable advances that have occurred in in vitro and in silico technologies in recent years, in vitro approaches are increasingly being applied in assessing risks of chemicals and drugs. Estimation of in vivo kinetics using in vitro methods is a necessary step in translating in vitro toxicity test findings to in vivo exposure conditions. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling is a key component in the in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of systemic toxicity, providing an effective framework to integrate and extrapolate in vitro results to in vivo and to determine the relevance of these data in the context of environmental exposures.