Shurson GC, Urriola PE., van de Ligt JLG. 2021. Can we effectively manage parasites, prions, and pathogens in the global feed industry to achieve One Health? Transbound Emerg Dis 69:4–30.
Prions and certain endoparasites, bacteria, and viruses are internationally recognized as types of disease-causing biological agents that can be transmitted from contaminated feed to animals. Historically, foodborne biological hazards such as prions (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy), endoparasites (Trichinella spiralis, Toxoplasma gondii), and pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Clostridium spp., and Campylobacter spp.) were major food safety concerns from feeding uncooked or improperly heated animal-derived food waste and by-products. However, implementation of validated thermal processing conditions along with verifiable quality control procedures has been effective in enabling safe use of these feed materials in animal diets. More recently, the occurrence of global Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and African Swine Fever Virus epidemics, dependence on international feed ingredient supply chains, and the discovery that these viruses can survive in some feed ingredient matrices under environmental conditions of trans-oceanic shipments has created an urgent need to develop and implement rigorous biosecurity protocols that prevent and control animal viruses in feed ingredients. Implementation of verifiable risk-based preventive controls, traceability systems from origin to destination, and effective mitigation procedures is essential to minimize these food security, safety, and sustainability threats. Creating a new biosafety and biosecurity framework will enable convergence of the diverging One Health components involving low environmental impact and functional feed ingredients that are perceived as having elevated biosafety risks when used in animal feeds.