Publications : 2020

Frankenfeld CL, Wallace TC. 2020. Dietary patterns and nutritional status in relation to consumption of chickpeas and hummus in the U.S. population. Appl Sci 10:7341,


Chickpeas, a commonly consumed legume, are the main ingredient in traditional hummus. U.S. dietary guidelines recommend consuming 1–1.5 cups of legumes per week. This study aimed to evaluate temporal changes in hummus and chickpea consumption and describe diet and biomarkers of health in U.S. consumers versus non-consumers. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2016) data were used. Dietary intake was collected using two 24-h recalls; age, gender, and poverty-to-income ratio were adjusted in statistical analyses. The proportion of the population who consumed chickpeas or hummus increased significantly over time. Hummus and chickpea consumers were more likely to obtain recommended legume intake. Consumers had significantly increased intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and decreased added sugars intakes versus non-consumers. Consumers also had lower concentrations of urinary iodine and higher concentrations of serum 4-pyridoxic acid, total vitamin B6, and red blood cell folate. Adults who consumed chickpeas and hummus were 48% and 62% less likely to have metabolic syndrome, respectively. Consuming chickpeas or hummus may be a practical means of improving diet quality and nutritional status. Future work should evaluate whether chronic disease incidence is reduced by chickpea and hummus consumption through better nutrition or lower metabolic syndrome incidence.