Publications : 2018

Proctor DM, Suh M, Chappell G, Borghoff SJ, Thompson CM, Wiench K, Finch L, Ellis-Hutchings R. 2018. An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for forestomach tumors induced by non-genotoxic initiating events. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 96:30-40, doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.04.016.


The utility of rodent forestomach tumor data for hazard and risk assessmenthas been examined for decades because humans do not have a forestomach, and these tumors occur by varying modes of action (MOAs). We have used the MOA for ethyl acrylate (EA) to develop an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for forestomach tumors caused by non-genotoxic initiating events. These tumors occur secondary to site of contact induced epithelial cytotoxicityand regenerative repair-driven proliferation. For EA, the critical initiating event (IE) is epithelial cytotoxicity, and supporting key events (KEs) at the cellular and tissue level are increased cell proliferation (KE1) resulting in sustained hyperplasia (KE2), with the adverse outcome of forestomach papillomas and carcinomas. For EA, a pre-molecular initiating event (pre-MIE) of sustained glutathione depletion is probable. Supporting data from butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are also reviewed. Although there may be some variability in the pre-MIEs and IEs for BHA and EA, they share the same KEs, and evidence for BHA confers support for the AOP. Evolved Bradford Hill considerations of biological plausibility, essentiality, and empirical support were evaluated per OECD guidance. Although an MIE is not specifically described, overall confidence in the AOP is high due to well-developed and accepted evidence streams, and the AOP can be used for regulatory applications including hazard identification and risk assessment for chemicals that act by this AOP.