Beyer BK, Chernoff N, Danielsson BR, Davis K -Bruno, Harrouk W, Hood RD, Janer G, Wändel Liminga U, Kim J, Rocca M, Rogers JM, Scialli AR. 2011. Maternal toxicity and its impact on study design and data interpretation. Birth Defects Res, Part B, Dev Reprod Toxicol 92:36–51.
Workshops on maternal toxicity were held at the annual Society of Toxicology, Teratology Society, and European Teratology Society meetings in 2009. Speakers presented background information prior to a general discussion on this topic. The following recommendations/options are based on the outcome of the discussions at the workshops: 1. A comprehensive evaluation of all available data from general toxicity studies, range-finding Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology (DART) studies, class effects, structure-activity relationships, exposure studies, etc. is essential for appropriate dose selection for definitive DART studies. The intent is to avoid marked maternal toxicity leading to mortality or decreased body weight gains of greater than 20% for prolonged periods. (a) Evaluate alternative endpoints for dose selection and data interpretation (e.g., target tissue effects and pharmacology) for biotherapeutics. (B) Evaluate additional maternal parameters based on effects and/or target organs observed in short-term (e.g., 2- or 4-week) general toxicity studies. 2. Evaluate all available data to determine a cause-effect relationship for developmental toxicity. (a) Conduct a pair-feeding/pair-watering study as a follow-up. (b) Evaluate individual data demonstrating maternal toxicity in the mother with adverse embryo-fetal outcomes in the litter associated with the affected mother. (c) Conduct single-dose studies at increasing doses as a complement to conventional embryo-fetal toxicity studies for certain classes of compounds that affect the hERG channel. 3. Support statements that embryo-fetal effects are caused by maternal toxicity and/or exaggerated pharmacology, especially for malformations. (a) Provide mechanistic or other supporting data. (b) Establish the relevance of the DART findings in animals for human exposures.