Publications : 2007

Liebelt EL, Balk SJ, Faber W, Fisher JW, Hughes CL, Lanzkron SM, Lewis KM, Marchetti F, Mehendale HM, Rogers JM, Shad AT, Skalko RG, Stanek EJ. 2007. NTP-CEHR expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of hydroxyurea. Birth Defects Res Part B, Dev Reprod Toxicol 80:259–366.


The National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) established the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) in June 1998. The purpose of the CERHR is to provide timely, unbiased, scientifically sound evaluations of human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction, including development, caused by agents to which humans may be exposed.

1-Bromopropane (1-BP) was nominated by NIOSH and selected for evaluation by the CERHR based primarily on documented evidence of worker exposures and published evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity in rodents. 1-BP is used in spray adhesives and as a precision cleaner and degreaser. It may also be used as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, insecticides, quaternary ammonium compounds, flavors, and fragrances and as a solvent for fats, waxes, or resins.

The evaluation of 1-BP was a 4-month effort by a 10-member panel of academic, private, and government scientists that culminated in a public meeting in December 2001. At that meeting, the Expert Panel reviewed the scientific evidence on 1-BP and reached conclusions regarding its potential effects on human reproduction and development. The background information on 1-BP and findings of the Expert Panel are contained within this report. Expert Panel reports are intended to (1) interpret the strength of scientific evidence that a given exposure or exposure circumstance may pose a hazard to reproduction and the health and welfare of children; (2) provide objective and scientifically thorough assessments of the scientific evidence that adverse reproductive/developmental health effects are associated with exposure to specific chemicals or classes of chemicals, including descriptions of any uncertainties that would diminish confidence in assessment of risks; and (3) identify knowledge gaps to help establish research and testing priorities. Staff scientists from the CERHR and members of the CERHR Core Committee (oversight committee to the CERHR whose members include NTP participating agencies) have reviewed the report and the CERHR will seek public review and comment through a Federal Register notice.