Gillett J, Rish W (eds.). 1991. Risk and exposure assessment from toxic chemicals. Chapter 8 in Human health risks from chemical exposure: The Great Lakes ecosystem. Lewis Publishers, CRC Press.
The assessment of risk derived from exposure to chemicals causing measured, adverse health effects relies upon bringing together three streams of information:
1. the exposure pathway(s) from a source presenting a concentration of the chemical over space and time, taking into account the transport and transformation of the chemical through these pathways
2. the characterization of the nature of hazard, i.e., the toxic effects, caused by the chemical in the target organisms presented with that exposure
3. the dose-response relationship of the exposure to the effect, taking into account the age, size, physiological status, and other factors affecting the nature and intensity of effect(s)Point 2 determines the process by which Point 1 is linked to Point 3, and is used later to place the nature of the impact into perspective for risk management, the series of decisions and actions by which risks are reduced.